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This paper investigates the variation of the monophthong [o] in TSSV across 3 successive generations. Specifically, nasal sound does not occur following the monophthong [o] in the senior generation when pronouncing words including ang. The lowered monophthong [o] is initially visible in the middle generation and more advanced in the young generation.

This paper examined the effectiveness of five-paragraph formula (FPF) (macro-structure of essay) on English as a Second Language (ESL) learners’ text quality and presented pedagogical implications for teachers to help ESL learners arrange their ideas systematically.

In order to evaluate the extent to which the children of immigrants from China acquire features of Singapore Mandarin and Singapore English., the present study focuses on the phonological variation of Mandarin Chinese in light of retroflex fronting (merger of retroflex and dental sibilant initials from /ʈʂ, ʈʂh, ʂ/ to [ts, tsh, s]) and depalatalization (/ɕ/ à [s]), and English in terms of th-stopping (initial /θ/ is replaced by [t]), final consonant cluster simplification (syllable-final [t] and [d] deletion when they occur with another consonant before) and merger of /æ/ and /e/.

This paper mainly investigates Seoul dialect in South Korea from 6 typological perspectives: (1) basic word order; (2) subject, case, alignment and verb agreement; (3) transitivity; (4) relative clause; (5) noun classifier system and (6) serial verbs.